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四种 SoS 的类型

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发表于 2017-6-3 08:07:29 | 显示全部楼层 |阅读模式

虚拟型;协作型;共识型;指导型。

原文:
In DoD and elsewhere,SoS can take different forms. Based on a recognized taxonomy of SoS, there arefour types of SoS which are found in the DoD today [Maier,1998; Dahmann, 2008].These are:

                                                                                                [size=12.000000pt]These are:
                                       




  • Virtual. Virtual SoS lack a central management authority and a centrally agreed upon purpose for the system-of-systems. Large-scale behavior emerges—and a centrally agreed upon purpose for the system-of-systems. Large-scale behavior emerges—and may be desirable—but this type of SoS must rely upon relatively invisible mechanisms to maintain it.





  • Collaborative. In collaborative     SoS the component systems interact more or less
         
    voluntarily to     fulfill agreed upon central purposes. The Internet is a collaborative     system. The Internet Engineering Task Force works out standards but has no     power to enforce them. The central players collectively decide how to     provide or deny service, thereby providing some means of enforcing and     maintaining standards.
      
  • Acknowledged. Acknowledged SoS     have recognized objectives, a designated manager, and resources for the     SoS; however, the constituent systems retain their independent ownership,     objectives, funding, and development and sustainment approaches. Changes     in the systems are based on collaboration between the SoS and the system.
  • Directed. Directed SoS are     those in which the integrated system-of-systems is built and managed to     fulfill specific purposes. It is centrally managed during long-term     operation to continue to fulfill those purposes as well as any new ones     the system owners might wish to address. The component systems maintain an     ability to operate independently, but their normal operational mode is     subordinated to the central managed purpose.


                                                                                                                                                参考:Systems Engineering Guide forSystems of Systems ,2008.8
                               
                       
               





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